Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
14 January 2011
Gulay Karaguzel & Michael F. Holick
Osteopenia is a term to define bone density that is not normal but also not as low as osteoporosis. There are a variety of pharmaceutical agents that have been recommended for the treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Supplementation with adequate doses of calcium and vitamin D in combination with exercise i.e., walking 3–5 miles/week is one of the most important cornerstones of the prevention of osteopenia/osteoporosis and are necessary during treatment with pharmacologic agents. Osteoporotic medications are effective only if the patient is vitamin D sufficient and receiving adequate calcium.