Current Osteoporosis Reports
25 March 2014
Robin M. Daly, Rachel L. Duckham, Jenny Gianoudis
Regular exercise and adequate nutrition, particularly dietary calcium, vitamin D, and protein, are prescribed as strategies to optimize peak bone mass and maintain bone and muscle health throughout life. Although the mechanism of action for exercise and nutrition on bone and muscle are different—exercise has a site-specific modifying effect, whereas nutritional factors have a permissive systemic effect—there is a sound physiological rationale to support an interactive effect. Based on the limited data available, additional calcium (or calcium rich dairy foods) can enhance the effects of exercise on bone mass in children and older adults, particularly in those with inadequate intakes.